2D Materials / Alfa Chemistry
X-ray Diffraction for 2D Materials
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X-ray Diffraction for 2D Materials

The formation of single-crystal monolayers and few-layer films of transition metal disulfides (TMDs) and other two-dimensional (2D) materials is crucial for applications in optics, electronics, sensing, catalysis, and other fields. It is vital to characterize these materials in order to determine their properties and uses. The technique of x-ray diffraction (XRD) is commonly employed to investigate the atomic organization in ordered materials.

Alfa Chemistry provides XRD testing to characterize 2D materials, which is critical for understanding their properties. Our XRD services include: qualitative and quantitative determinations in crystalline materials; identification of phases, microcrystal sizes and crystallinity indices in chemicals and materials; refinement and determination of cells, planes, crystal structures and atomic positions. Please contact us right away so that we can help you with 2D material testing!


XRD is a fast analytical technique for studying crystal structures that provide quick insight into a sample's phase purity and crystallinity. XRD is based on the interference of monochromatic X-rays with the phase length of a crystalline sample.

A cathode-ray tube generates the X-rays, which are then filtered for monochromatic radiation and collimated to focus and direct at the sample. The interaction of light rays with the sample creates phase length interference when conditions satisfy Bragg's law. By scanning the sample angle in the 2θ range, all feasible lattice diffraction directions are found. Because each mineral has its own set of d-spacings, converting diffraction peaks to d-spacings enables mineral identification. The d-spacing is frequently compared to a conventional reference pattern to achieve this.

X-ray diffractograms of powder graphene oxide (GO), graphene oxide film (GOF), chemically reduced graphene oxide film (CGOF), and thermally reduced graphene oxide film (TGOF).Fig 1. X-ray diffractograms of powder graphene oxide (GO), graphene oxide film (GOF), chemically reduced graphene oxide film (CGOF), and thermally reduced graphene oxide film (TGOF). (Gascho J, et al. 2019)

Advantages of the method:

  • Powerful and fast (< 20 min) technique for identifying unknown minerals
  • In most cases, it provides unambiguous crystal determination
  • Minimal sample preparation required
  • XRD devices are widely available
  • Data interpretation is relatively simple

Service Detail

Testing ServicesX-ray Diffraction (XRD)
Test AngleRegular: 5~90°; Small Angle: 0.5~10°
Test RateRegular: 10°/min, 5°/min, 2°/min; Small Angle: 1°/min, 0.5°/min
Sample TypePowder / Film / Bulk
Instrument ModelMalvern PANalytical X'pert Pro MPD, Ultima IV AUTOMATED MULTIPURPOSE XRD, Bruker D8 QUEST SC-XRD
Lead Time2~3 Weeks

Our requirements for samples are as follows:

  • For powder sample: Customer please provides 100 mg sample. If the quantity is limited, please contact us. Please grind the sample well before delivery.
  • For bulk sample: The sample size is within 2 × 2 × 0.5 cm. Customers please mark the test surface to ensure that the test surface is smooth and clean.
  • For film sample: Please contact us for more information.

Sample requirements


  • Test results are for reference only and may vary from sample to sample.
  • All samples are non-refundable, please contact us if you have special requirements.


  1. Gascho J, et al. (2019). "Atomic Force Microscopy for Two-Dimensional Materials: A Tutorial Review." Journal of Nanomaterials. 2019: 5963148.

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