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Black Phosphorus Solution Customization
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Black Phosphorus Solution Customization

Alfa Chemistry focuses on two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials technology companies, mainly including MXenes and MAX phase materials, black phosphorus, etc. The company's R&D team is led by a group of doctors with international study experience and years of research experience. We can "customize" our Black Phosphorus Solutions products to meet the various needs of our customers. Let us help you resolve your issue quickly.

2D Black Phosphorus (BP)

Because of its unusual crystal structure, high carrier mobility, and tunable direct bandgap, BP has piqued researchers' curiosity as a potential elemental two-dimensional (2D) material.

Because of its distinctive orthorhombic crystal structure, BP has a stronger structural stability than other phosphorus allotropes. Bulk BP is made up of multiple monolayer BP (phosphorene) planes that are held together by weak van der Waals forces (vdWs). Each BP monolayer is made up of sp3-hybridized phosphorus atoms that create a pleated honeycomb structure with a non-planar folded hexagonal configuration. Electrical and optoelectronic properties of BP are directly related to its distinct fundamental structure. Preparing high-quality and stable few-layer BP is critical for research and applications in biology, electronics, optoelectronics, and other domains.

Structure of BP.Fig 1. (a) Structure of BP. (b) SEM image of a layered BP crystal. (c) Photograph of a dispersion of exfoliated FL-BP in CHP. (d–f) Representative low-resolution TEM images of FL-BP exfoliated in N-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidone (CHP). (g) Bright-field STEM image and (h) Butterworth-filtered high-angle annular dark field STEM image of FL-BP showing the intact lattice. (Hanlon D, et al. 2015)

BP Solution Synthesis and Characterization

Alfa Chemistry can create monolayers and several layers of thin films incorporating BPs. Liquid-phase exfoliation is one way of producing huge amounts of nanosheets (LPE). This method of sonication or shearing stacked crystals in a suitable liquid has been extended to a variety of other two-dimensional materials.

By sonicating high-quality BPs crystals generated by CVT, we developed BPs solutions. Ultrasonic treatment of stacked BPs layers yields extremely crystalline BPs monolayers, a few layers, and some thick layers suspended in solution, due to the very crystalline starting material of BPs. For example, we can create a significant number of FL-BP nanosheets by sonicating BPs in a solvent such as N-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidone (CHP).

IdentificationBPs solution produced by stratification of BPs crystals by ultrasonic technology.
Physical Sizes1 to 10 layers thick (thicker fragments may be observed depending on usage), 10 nm to 10 microns lateral dimension.
SmoothnessAtomically smooth surface with roughness < 0.35 nm.
CrystallinityHighly crystalline nanomaterials. No amorphous flakes, contaminants or hidden second phases.
Dispersant solutionEthanol, isopropanol, deionized water, NMP, CHP, other solvents can be prepared as needed.
StabilityHigh environmental and dispersant stability.
SupportWe provide full technical support and guarantee your satisfaction with our renowned customers.

Electron energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDAX), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Raman spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies have all validated various characterizations of BPs nanomaterials.

Schematic illustration of basic-NMP-exfoliation of bulk BP into phosphorene.Fig 2. (i) Schematic illustration of basic-NMP-exfoliation of bulk BP into phosphorene. (ii) Photographs of bulk BP and phosphorene dispersed in NMP and water. (Zeng Y. H, et al. 2021)


Here are some suggestions for volume, concentration, and solvent type.

We ship supersaturated 2D solutions at concentrations of 80-120 mg/L (depending on the type of 2D layer) to reduce shipping costs. These supersaturated solutions can be diluted to make substantial volumes (250-500 mL) that can be used in a simple and cost-effective rotary casting method to deposit 2D layers onto the suitable substrate. Because of its environmental stability, thermal stability, dispersing characteristics, and non-polluting nature, ethanol is recommended as a dispersant solvent. Please contact us if your research necessitates the use of different solvents.


  1. Zeng Y. H, et al. (2021). "Synthesis and Stabilization of Black Phosphorus and Phosphorene: Recent Progress and Perspectives." iScience. 24(10): 103116.
  2. Hanlon D, et al. (2015). "Liquid Exfoliation of Solvent-Stabilized Few-Layer Black Phosphorus for Applications Beyond Electronics." Nature Communications. 6: 8563.

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