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Antibacterial and Antifouling Surface Based on 2D Materials
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Antibacterial and Antifouling Surface Based on 2D Materials

2D materials have substantially benefited biological applications, particularly in the areas of antibacterial and anti-fouling, and significant technological improvements have been accomplished. The surfaces of 2D materials will come into direct touch with biological species such as biomolecules, bioreceptors, cells, tissues, and pathogens. As a result, it's critical to comprehend material surface qualities and how they might be used in a variety of antibacterial and antifouling applications.

Alfa Chemistry is a leader in the field of 2D materials research and development, and we can provide specific 2D material solutions to match our customers' needs. Please contact us right away if you need assistance with antimicrobial and antifouling surface application research.

Antimicrobial Properties

Because of their antibacterial properties, 2D materials have sparked a lot of interest in biomedical applications. The antibacterial activity of 2D materials, such as graphene materials (GMs), MoS2, h-BN, BP, and certain MXenes, is linked to their physicochemical and structural features. The interactions between 2D materials and these pathogens occur on their surfaces. The mechanisms by which 2D materials show antimicrobial activity are as follows.

(a) Nano blade derived from sharp edge action.
(b) Oxidative stress-mediated by the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS).
(c) Encapsulation or trapping of bacterial membranes in a flexible film structure derived from GM.
(d) Other recently proposed mechanisms such as lipid bilayer extraction, protein-protein interaction (PPI) interference, and "self-killing" effects.

Mechanisms of the antimicrobial activities of GMs.Fig 1. Mechanisms of the antimicrobial activities of GMs. (Zou X, et al. 2016)

Antifouling Properties

Biofilm formation by microorganisms around implanted medical devices continues to be a challenge for the biomedical community. The best way to deal with this problem is to put biomaterials on their surfaces that can repel or kill microbes in the immediate vicinity. Due to their unique surface qualities, the use of 2D materials as coatings, composites, or membranes, for example, is an interesting method for antifouling applications.

The following are the ways for employing 2D materials for antifouling applications.

(a) Choose 2D materials with high surface hydrophilicity and negative charge. Biological contamination is controlled by anti-adhesion modes, which create conditions unfavorable to natural organic matter (NOM) and some bacteria and hinder their growth on the surface.

(b) The surface roughness of 2D materials has a key impact in antifouling effectiveness, as rougher surfaces increase adhesion, which leads to more bacterial adherence.

(c) Preparing nanocomposites and hybrid nanomaterials with antibacterial properties, such as metal and oxide nanoparticles and polymers, is another technique to increase the antifouling capabilities of 2D materials. Recent research has demonstrated that graphene/chitosan nanocomposites have significant anti-biofilm formation action against biofilm-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae.

2D Material Solutions

Based on the above, Alfa Chemistry can provide or customize a variety of 2D materials for antimicrobial and antifouling surface applications. Below are some available 2D materials and their surface property effects for antimicrobial and antifouling applications. Common properties, such as high surface area and biocompatibility, are omitted.

2D MaterialSurface PropertiesEffectEfficiency
2H MoS2The high negative surface charge; semiconducting; low friction; low surface roughnessAntifoulingAntifouling layer against natural organic matter and E. coli
1T MoS2The high negative surface charge; metallic; "nanoknives"AntibacterialAntibacterial properties against Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli
2H WS2The high negative surface charge; high surface area; semiconducting; "nanoknives"AntibacterialAntibacterial properties against S. aureus and E. coli with antibacterial rates of 91.3% and 89.7%, respectively.
BPThe high negative surface charge; high surface area; semiconducting; photocatalytic; "nanoknives"AntibacterialAntibacterial properties against E. coli and B. subtilis with 91.65% and 99.69% of efficiency respectively
GOThe high negative surface charge; smooth surface; semiconducting; "nanoknives"AntibacterialInhibition of S. aureus and E. coli.
GO/ZnO nanocompositeThe high negative surface charge; oxygen functional groups; "nanoknives"Antibacterial and biofilm inhibitionInhibition of biofilm formation around 90% Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Shigella flexneri

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  1. Zou X, et al. (2016). "Mechanisms of the Antimicrobial Activities of Graphene Materials." J. Am. Chem. Soc. 138: 2064-2077.

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