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Tissue Engineering Based on 2D Materials
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Tissue Engineering Based on 2D Materials

Physical trauma, infection, and tumors can all cause harm to body tissues. The treatment and repair of numerous tissues, particularly bone and dental tissue regeneration, receives a lot of attention. Integration of two-dimensional (2D) materials in tissue engineering procedures appears to be a promising alternative in this context. Aside from their superior physical and chemical properties, 2D materials have good biocompatibility, biodegradability, surface functionality, high mechanical resistance, and flexibility, making them ideal for coatings and nanocomposites in tissue engineering.

Alfa Chemistry is a leader in the development of 2D materials, and we can provide specific 2D material solutions to meet our customers' application needs. Contact us today if you need help with your research in tissue engineering applications.

Why 2D Materials

Specifically, the surface properties of 2D materials play an important role in tissue engineering, mainly due to the interaction between 2D materials and tissues. The biocompatibility of 2D materials is closely related to their huge surface area and surface chemistry, which is an important feature to evaluate when determining if a material is a biomaterial. The biocompatibility of scaffolds is considerably improved and osteogenic differentiation is facilitated thanks to the excellent mechanical strength and low cytotoxicity of 2D materials.

2D Materials

Furthermore, the antibacterial and antifouling properties of 2D materials are highly attractive for wound repair and medical implant applications, as they help to avoid the formation of bacterial biofilms on implantable medical devices. The surface morphology of 2D materials is also important in the regulation of cellular function and is connected to their success as coatings for implantable biomedical devices.

2D Materials Solution

Based on the above, Alfa Chemistry can provide or customize a variety of 2D materials for tissue engineering applications.

Graphene and its derivatives stand out because they exhibit distinct morphological characteristics, such as wrinkles and ripples, which increase the substrate's surface roughness. This rough surface creates anchor points for cells to cling to the substrate more easily. By binding to molecules or surfaces, the oxygen functional groups of GO can adsorb serum proteins in the culture media and stimulate cell differentiation and proliferation. Furthermore, the negatively charged GO surface can enhance electrostatic interactions with positively charged calcium phosphate, allowing the formation of GO and calcium phosphate nanocomposites as well as the stimulation of osteogenic processes in bone regeneration applications.

Schematic illustration of the preparation of the black phosphorus nanosheet based 3D hydrogel platform via photopolymerization of gelatin methacrylamide (GelMA) and cationic arginine-based unsaturated poly(ester amide)s [U-Arg-PEAs], for effective bone regeneration.Fig 1. Schematic illustration of the preparation of the black phosphorus nanosheet based 3D hydrogel platform via photopolymerization of gelatin methacrylamide (GelMA) and cationic arginine-based unsaturated poly(ester amide)s [U-Arg-PEAs], for effective bone regeneration. (Huang K, et al. 2019)

Black phosphorus (BP), which has a special property related to its chemical composition - phosphorus atoms - is another type of interest in bone tissue engineering. In the presence of oxygen and water, BP is chemically unstable and quickly degrades to phosphorus oxide (POx), which releases phosphate ions. Phosphate ions are the most common component of bone minerals, and they play a crucial role in bone regeneration.

In addition to graphene and BP, many other 2D materials and nanocomposites based on these materials have been explored in tissue engineering. Below are some of the available 2D materials and their surface property implications for tissue engineering applications. Common properties, such as high surface area and biocompatibility, are omitted.

2D MaterialSurface PropertiesEfficiency
GO/alginate nanocomposite bioinksHigh surface roughness; oxygen functional groups; negative chargeEnhanced osteogenic differentiation by the 3D scaffolds printed with the bioink based on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and the alginate/GO
MXenes-Ti3C2Tz-poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanocompositeHigh surface roughness; high hydrophilicity; high binding energy between their surfaces and bridging Ca2+ ionsEnhanced the in vitro adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 mouse preosteoblasts
hBN-gelatin nancompositeLewis "acid behaviour" due to the vacant "p" orbital of the B atom on h-BNThe hBN-gelatin nancomposite fibers with high bioactivity to form bonelike hydroxyapatite; high biocompatibility in human bone cells (HOS osteosarcoma cell line)

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  1. Huang K, et al. (2019). "Black Phosphorus Hydrogel Scaffolds Enhance Bone Regeneration via a Sustained Supply of Calcium-Free Phosphorus." ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces. 11: 2908-2916.

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